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Graphene research has made it possible to create a new promising type of power generation

The weather disasters of recent years, the coronavirus pandemic and the conduct of a special military operation in Ukraine not only influenced the setting of economic priorities, bringing energy supply issues to the fore for the EU countries, but at the same time showed the vulnerability of existing power generation technologies, both traditional and alternative energy.

If politicians who are not competent in energy matters have decided that solar energy and wind generation can replace electricity from fossil fuel combustion, then experts see and point out all the disadvantages of these technologies. Therefore, the world's best scientists, technicians and engineers are looking for innovative technological solutions to replace fossil fuels, although it should be noted that there is no instant solution and decades of hard work are needed to create acceptable new energy supply technologies. The escalation of geopolitical confrontation in the world has led to a multiple rise in fuel and electricity prices, and the political crisis in European countries was the result of the "deadlock" in the EU energy policy, which causes growing dissatisfaction among the general public in the face of rising inflation and financial instability.

At the same time, the progress that has been made in recent years in the field of creating new nanomaterials allows many scientists to reasonably assume that the energy of the future will be based on the use of nanomaterials both in the field of electricity production and in the field of its delivery to the consumer with minimal losses. The current electricity grids are limited in capacity in almost all countries and will not be able to cope with the sharply increasing demand for electricity. Upgrading the power grid will require substantial investment, but the United States alone will need investment over the coming decades to modernize outdated transmission lines and build thousands of kilometers of new lines, which could reach $2 trillion, and given the current inflation, they could increase many times over.

The growing energy crisis in the EU has more or less relegated eco-economics, climate issues and global warming to the background in order to provide energy to the population.The politicians of European countries immediately forgot about their own demands to ban coal combustion for power generation and will even reactivate coal-fired power plants that have already been decommissioned, while scientists continue research work to develop the latest power generation technologies.

Graphene

Particularly promising in this regard is the idea of ​​creating a distributed power supply system based on the use of nanomaterials. It has already been proven that graphene is a material that allows generating electric current. However, many scientists do not understand how this discovery can be applied to the needs of power generation and argue about the need for research that will take more than a dozen years. Most scientists refer to information published by a group of scientists from the University of Arkansas, led by Professor Thibado, that graphene is able to extract energy from the surrounding space. It was concluded that this ability is explained by the thermal Brownian motion of graphene atoms. In an interview with Research Frontiers, Professor Thibado (University of Arkansas) stated: “This is the key to using the movement of 2D materials as a source of inexhaustible energy. The tandem vibrations cause ripples in the graphene sheet, which makes it possible to extract energy from the surrounding space using the latest nanotechnology.” However, the group led by Professor Thibado was unable to offer a practical application for this discovery, as they recorded an extremely weak generated power, the practical application of which is impossible.

The possibility of practical application of graphene for the needs of power generation was previously developed by a group of scientists from Neutrino Energy Group led by Holger Thorsten Schubart, who experimentally discovered the ability of graphene to generate electric current much earlier than scientists from the University of Arkansas. Neutrino Energy Group's strategic decision was not to disclose research results until all research and laboratory tests were completed and a patent for the invention was obtained. Such a decision was justified by the exceptional significance of the work being carried out, as well as their commercial nature, given that the financing was carried out at the expense of own capital without state subsidies, and only stable positive results of the experiments that were obtained and made public in 2014 gradually attracted the interest of a wide range of investors .

The complexity of the work carried out was not only in finding the material and substantiating the principle of the appearance of an electric current, but also in the absence of a mental perception of the very fact of the possibility of obtaining electricity not only under the influence of the temperature Brownian motion of graphene atoms, but also under the influence of surrounding radiation fields, which was not finally approved andup to this day.

But the project shows practical success to all skeptics, and already in 2023, the licensed industrial production of Neutrino Power Cubes power sources with an output power of 5 kWh, intended for household power supply, will begin. For a global discovery of such revolutionary significance, the nine-year period from discovery to commercialization is unprecedentedly short. Moreover, it should be noted that Switzerland is one of the first countries where the industrial production of Neutrino Power Cubes begins; licenses for industrial production have also been acquired by several other countries, including Russia. License rights to Russia extend not only to the production of Neutrino Power Cubes power sources, but also to the production of electric vehicles with direct current sources built into its body, as well as to the production of the widest range of products using Neutrinovoltaic technology.

The know-how of Neutrinovoltaic technology lies in the invention of a nanomaterial capable of converting the kinetic energy of various particles of the invisible radiation spectrum, which have mass, into electric current. To be more precise, various radiations, including a stream of neutrinos with a power of 60 billion particles per second, penetrating every cm2 of the earth's surface, cause graphene atoms to vibrate. These vibrations are superimposed on vibrations of graphene atoms due to the temperature Brownian motion. When the frequencies coincide, a resonance of vibrations of graphene atoms appears, which makes it possible to multiply the recoil of graphene electrons. In graphene, which has a six-sided crystal lattice as its basis, a wave arises, like waves on the surface of the sea, appearing as a result of a combination of small spontaneous movements and leading to the appearance of larger spontaneous movements. The displacement of one atom, summing up with the displacements of other atoms, causes the appearance of surface waves with horizontal polarization, known in acoustics as "Love waves". The lighter the atomic mass of a chemical element, the stronger the effect of the collision of various particles with the nucleus of an atom of a chemical element. Presumably, this is why the vibrations of graphene atoms, for example, are 100 times stronger than the vibrations of silicon atoms. The process of interaction of neutrinos and other particles of radiation fields of the invisible spectrum with the nucleus of an atom of a chemical element is called "coherent elastic neutrino-nuclear scattering (CEvNS)".

Simplified scheme of coherent elastic scattering of neutrinos by heavy nuclei. D. Akimov et. al. / Science
Simplified scheme of coherent elastic scattering of neutrinos by heavy nuclei. D. Akimov et. al. / Science

Neutrino Energy Group scientists have found that when graphene layers are interleaved with doped silicon, the electrons in graphene distort their movement in a common direction, i.e. there is a constant electric current. The overall effect is what physicists call "oblique scattering," where clouds of electrons deflect their motion in one direction. A single layer of graphene is capable of generating very low current, but the goal was to create a technology that works reliably, and the DC sources created on its basis have a compact size, which is a key condition for placing Neutrino Power Cubes in residential areas. The problem was solved by manufacturing a multilayer generating nanomaterial, thus, the output current and voltage were increased many times over. The multilayer nanomaterial is applied to one side of the metal foil to maintain its integrity. The coated side of the metal foil becomes the positive pole, while the uncoated side becomes the negative pole. The presence of positive and negative poles on the power generating plate allows you to create power sources of various output characteristics.

The development of Neutrinovoltaic power generation technology is a breakthrough scientific achievement, and its implementation in practice will be an important contribution to the creation of an autonomous emission-free energy of the future without a centralized power supply in the era of refusing to burn fossil natural resources for power generation.

Author: Rumyantsev L.K., Ph.D.

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