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Creation of a power supply system taking into account the possibility of large-scale sabotage

Sabotage on the Nord Stream and Nord Stream 2 gas pipelines showed that any critical infrastructure facilities are at risk and can be destroyed.The criticality of such a situation is seen in particular in the fact that such a terrorist attack was carried out by the special services of one of the countries.The adoption of state terrorist practices is a new stage in the confrontation between states, and the whole continent has become the affected party along with Russia.

Europe is anxiously awaiting the arrival of winter, based on the current situation, a rapid increase in prices for electricity, heat and gas is expected, and the European industry is threatened with the possibility of becoming uncompetitive, which may entail the relocation of energy-intensive industry from Germany, first of all, to other countries.Most likely, further destabilization of the political situation was a possible goal of the organizers of the sabotage, who also ignored the catastrophic environmental damage due to the release of methane.

Leaks in the Nord Stream and Nord Stream 2 gas pipelines will lead to the emission of approximately 7.5 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, which corresponds to almost one percent of Germany's annual CO2 emissions, according to a press release issued by the Federal Office for Protectionenvironment (Umweltbundschutz - UBA).

This incident ultimately showed the vulnerability and insecurity of the energy infrastructure of any state.The destruction of several of the largest power plants will instantly lead to an imbalance in the energy system and a complete blackout, and a long shutdown is inevitable chaos, especially in cities with a population of over a milli

In this context, it should be noted that the creation of a distributed power generation system has not only an economic and environmental effect, but also has a protective function for the state economy. The creation of a distributed power generation system cannot be based only on the downsizing, for example, of TPPs, since to turn them off, it is enough to take the gas pipeline out of operation, as happened in the situation with the Nord Streams. The transformation of the power supply system should combine the solution of several problems at the same time: the creation of a distributed system, the refusal to burn fossil fuels, the achievement of zero greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere.

Why is it vital for Russia to create a power supply system without burning fossil fuels? In fact, this question was answered by the head of Rosnedra of Russia Evgeny Petrov, who in his interview estimated that as of January 1, 22, technologically recoverable oil reserves would last for 39 years, and profitably recoverable reserves - for 33 years. Provision with technologically recoverable natural gas reserves - 62 years. Of course, new reserves are being explored, production technologies are improving, but the locations of new deposits are shifting far to the north and to the sea, which raises the question of the economic feasibility and environmental safety of oil and gas production. Taking into account the figures given by Mr. Petrov, it is necessary to start working on the creation of a distributed power supply system now, because. Energy investments are calculated for a long period and have a long payback period.

What technologies of power generation that exclude the burning of fossil fuels are economically viable for transforming the Russian power supply system?

The main consumers of electricity and the vast majority of the population are located in the European part of Russia, where the possibilities for increasing hydro generation are practically exhausted. Replacement of electricity generation from burning fossil fuels is possible by building additional NPP units operating in a maneuver mode, although the optimal condition is still operation in the base mode. However, it should be noted that the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant had a strong influence on the split in public opinion. Today, for example, Germany is categorically against nuclear power plants and is decommissioning existing units, while China is increasing the pace of construction of nuclear power units. At the same time, increasing requirements for protection against terrorism and military attacks on nuclear facilities play a role, which does not help reduce the cost of building new units.

Solar energy and wind generation can develop in those locations where weather conditions contribute to the profitability of their deployment.There are very few such places in Russia.

In the coming years in Russia, Progressus Neutrino plans to build a plant for the production of Neutrinovoltaic power sources. Neutrinovoltaic technology, developed by the Neutrino Energy Group, uses as a working element a multilayer material of alternating layers of graphene and doped silicon, which allows generating an electric current under the influence of the thermal Brownian motion of graphene atoms, as well as the kinetic energy of particles of surrounding fields of invisible radiation, including neutrinos. At the end of 2023-beginning of 2024, it is also planned to start industrial licensed production of Neutrino Power Cubes power sources with a minimum net power of 5-10 kW in Switzerland. Such a source will have 220 V and 380 V AC connectors, as well as a connector for connecting DC equipment. The source with a net power of 5-6 kW has 6 power generating modules, the source with a net power of 10-12 kW has 12 power generating modules. The design features of Neutrino Power Cubes make it possible to increase the required power by connecting additional power generating modules, each of which consists of a set of closely packed metal foil plates with a multilayer nanomaterial applied to one side.

HolgerThorsten Schubart, president of the science and technology company Neutrino Energy Group
HolgerThorsten Schubart, president of the science and technology company Neutrino Energy Group

The ability of the created nanomaterial to generate electricity is determined by the properties of graphene, the mass fraction of which in the nanomaterial is about 75%. Graphene, being a 2D material, exhibits the properties of a 3D material. Holger Thorsten Schubart, Project Supervisor and President of the Neutrino Energy Group, commented on this property of graphene: “Tandem vibrations cause a graphene wave to appear due to a combination of small spontaneous movements and leading to larger spontaneous movements that are observed in a microscope with strong resolution. These vibrations, turning into resonance, allow us to extract energy from the surrounding space using the latest nanotechnology.”

Graphene films are exceptionally strong and resilient. Graphene has a very high thermal conductivity, which, combined with high electrical conductivity, allows the passage of an electric current a million times higher than the maximum possible current in copper films. At elevated temperatures, according to the Fermi–Dirac distribution, some of the electrons pass into the conduction band, while "holes" remain in the valence band. This predetermines the rather high electrical conductivity of graphene at room temperature. Conduction electrons and "holes" in graphene have zero effective mass, i.e. they cannot be motionless, but move all the time with the "Fermi velocity", which in graphene is approximately 106 m/s, that is, it is already relativistic. This is the reason for the very high mobility of electric charge carriers in graphene, which is at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than their mobility in silicon, and the "ballistic" nature of their motion along the film. The mean free path of conduction electrons and holes in graphene at room temperature exceeds 1 μm.

“The use of alternating layers of graphene with doped silicon, as well as the use of graphene with practically no impurities, leads to the fact that the electrons in graphene distort their movement in one direction, i.e.there is a direct electric current," Holger Thorsten Schubart explains the effect of the appearance of an electric current.

The use of widespread and inexpensive materials will make it possible to form competitive prices for Neutrinovoltaic power sources, which is especially important today, given the growing level of electricity prices in the world.The significance of this invention will grow year by year as fossil fuels are depleted and prices rise.

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