"Free energy" is replacing fossil fuels
Against the backdrop of the armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the topic of a carbon-free economy seems to have lost its priority today.But hostilities will end sooner or later, and then the issue of climate change will again be on the agenda with all its relevance.
According to Interfax, the head of Roshydromet, Igor Shumakov, announced the accelerated pace of climate warming in Russia relative to average planetary values. The greatest warming is recorded in the northern polar region of Russia, there is a process of degradation of permafrost and a reduction in the area of sea ice in the Arctic. A critical increase in the average annual temperature threatens with large-scale man-made disasters in the form of destruction of buildings and structures, logistics lines and communication lines, as well as emissions of huge volumes of methane. Therefore, work on the transition to a carbon-free economy cannot be postponed, and, first of all, we are talking about replacing energy technologies associated with the combustion of fossil fuels.
At present, the set of carbon-free energy generation technologies is rather limited, and the priority of development is directed to solar energy and wind generation, the generation of electricity of which is completely dependent on weather conditions, in addition, the problem of processing spent solar panels and wind turbine blades has not been solved so far.Therefore, this direction of energy development should be considered only an intermediate link on the way to abandoning fossil fuels.
For many years, a number of scientists, starting with Nikola Tesla, have been interested in the possibility of mastering the so-called "free energy", which the great Serbian scientist called "ether", and modern scientists - "fields of radiation of the invisible spectrum".In the 21st century, there has been a scientific and technological breakthrough in understanding the nature of the concept of "free energy" and the development of nanomaterials capable of converting "free energy" into electric current.
Graphene turned out to be such a nanomaterial (a two-dimensional allotropic modification of carbon formed by a layer of carbon atoms one atom thick. Carbon atoms are in sp² hybridization and are connected via σ- and π-bonds into a hexagonal two-dimensional crystal lattice). It turned out that graphene cannot exist in the 2D plane, but only in the 3D plane. It behaves like a three-dimensional material to provide the necessary stability. The “loophole” is the displacement of mobile atoms, which gives graphene the properties of the third dimension. In other words, graphene was never 100% flat - it vibrated at the atomic level so that its compounds did not undergo spontaneous decay. A group of physicists at the University of Manchester, led by Paul Thibado, proved that the matter is in the so-called "Levy flights" - patterns of small random fluctuations, combined with sudden, sharp shifts. By measuring the speed and scale of these graphene waves, Thibadot suggested that they could be used to extract energy from the environment.
Graphene is extremely strong, elastic, has a very high thermal and electrical conductivity, which makes it possible to pass an electric current a million times higher than the maximum possible current in copper films. At elevated temperatures, according to the Fermi–Dirac distribution, some of the electrons pass into the conduction band, while "holes" remain in the valence band. This predetermines the rather high electrical conductivity of graphene at room temperature. Conduction electrons and "holes" in graphene have zero effective mass, i.e. they cannot be motionless, but move all the time with the "Fermi velocity", which in graphene is approximately 106 m/s, that is, it is already relativistic. This is the reason for the very high mobility of electric charge carriers in graphene, which is at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than their mobility in silicon, and the "ballistic" nature of their motion along the film. The mean free path of conduction electrons and holes in graphene at room temperature exceeds 1 μm.
The possibility of practical application of graphene for power generation was first proved by a group of scientists from the Neutrino Energy Group, led by German researcher and mathematician Holger Thorsten Schubart, who created a multilayer nanomaterial from alternating layers of graphene and doped silicon, which is applied to one side of a metal foil. The side of the foil with the applied nanomaterial becomes the positive pole, and the reverse side without the nanomaterial becomes the negative pole. A multilayer coating (optimally 12 layers of graphene-silicon) allows you to get more energy per unit area, which is extremely important for creating industrial power generating products and makes it possible to manufacture compact current sources of various power characteristics and sizes. The ability of the created nanomaterial to generate electricity is determined by the properties of graphene, the mass fraction of which in the nanomaterial is about 75%. Holger Thorsten Schubart comments on the properties of graphene, “Tandem vibrations cause a 'graphene' wave to appear due to the combination of small spontaneous motions and leading to larger spontaneous motions that are observed under a high-resolution microscope. These vibrations, turning into resonance, allow us to extract energy from the surrounding space using the latest nanotechnology.”
The appearance of a resonance of graphene atomic vibrations is due to the coincidence of vibration frequencies caused by the thermal Brownian motion of graphene atoms and the external influence of particles of surrounding radiation fields, primarily neutrinos.
It should be noted that the Neutrino Energy Group manages to very quickly go from a scientific invention to the industrial implementation of the development. At the end of 2023-beginning of 2024, it is planned to start industrial licensed production of Neutrino Power Cubes power sources with a minimum net power of 5-10 kW in Switzerland. Such a source will have 220 V and 380 V AC connectors, as well as a connector for connecting DC equipment. The source with a net power of 5-6 kW has 6 power generating modules, the source with a net power of 10-12 kW has 12 power generating modules. The design features of Neutrino Power Cubes allow you to increase the required power by connecting additional power generating modules, each of which consists of a set of densely packed power generating plates. One plate with a size of 200x300 mm creates a voltage of 1.5 V and a current of 2 A. Neutrino Power Cube will be produced in the form of an electrical panel (cabinet), which will conditionally be divided into 2 departments: the power generating compartment, where the power generating modules are located, and the compartment for installing the control system . The generating section of the Neutrino Power Cube with a net power of 5-6 kW will have a size of 800x400x600 mm and a weight of about 50 kg. To date, the planned price from the Swiss manufacturer Neutrino Power Cube with a net power output of 5-6 kW is 11 thousand euros. Taking into account the current prices for electricity and heat supply in the EU, the installation of such a source of electricity will pay off within 2-3 years. In the coming years, it is planned to organize the production of Neutrino Power Cubes with 100% localization in Russia.
Neutrino Power Cubes power sources are uninterruptible power sources that generate electricity in the basic mode 24 hours a day, 360 days a year.
Author: Rumyantsev L.K., Ph.D.